But the theory of government remained an overarching theoretical concept in continental Europe right to the end of the nineteenth century e. The sciences concerned with the state have been differentiated and specialized. Public law, economics, political science, political sociology, geography, planning, and other academic disciplines have developed their own systems of reference for theory and analysis. To some degree the scientific dialects have become rites of passage, restricting access to the mysteries of special knowledge to the initiated few.
Private Sector Job Listings Mail work and file work both include a wide variety of processing operations that may be segregated or combined in many different ways to constitute mail or file positions. Typically, both mail and file work consist principally of manually-performed operations.
In many manual systems various mechanical devices are used to facilitate the handling and processing operations. These include such items of desk top equipment as date stampers, automatic envelope opening machines, automatic envelope sealing machines, copying machines, addressing machines, folding and inserting machines, and freestanding equipment such as mechanic files, etc.
More recently, automated filing systems have been developed. For example, automated systems records are stored on microfilm or microfiche and located and retrieved by means of automatic searching by a scanning unit that is controlled by a coded punch card.
In those systems some new terminology is used and some changes have occurred in the methods applied in filing or storing records and in searching for or retrieving information from records.
Neither the mechanical devices nor the operations performed in automated systems have affected the basic nature of mail or file work. The use of an automated system involves a rearrangement of, but no change in, basic filing processes.
For this reason, this standard, that depicts mail and file work in terms of the processes involved in manual filing systems, is appropriate for the evaluation of positions concerned with automated or mechanical operations.
Secretary Series, GS This series includes all positions the duties of which are to assist one individual, and in some cases the subordinate staff of that individual, by performing general office work auxiliary to the work of the organization.
To be included in this series, a position must be the principal office clerical or administrative support position in the office, operating independently of any other such position in the office. The duties require a knowledge of clerical and administrative procedures and requirements; various office skills; and the ability to apply such skills in a way that increases the effectiveness of others.
The federal government employs 16, secretaries of which work overseas. The Department of the Air Force is the largest employer with 2, civilians followed by the Department of the Army with 2, and 2, with the Veterans Administration. All cabinet level and large agencies employ secretaries. Click on "Private Sector Job Listings" to search for related occupations in the private sector.
Private Sector Job Listings Positions in this series exist for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of others by performing as many office support duties as possible.
This includes serving as the principal clerical and administrative support position in the immediate organizational unit in or for which the persons assisted have responsibility, by carrying out and coordinating all the clerical and day-to-day administrative support activities which are typically required to accomplish the work of the organization.
The nature and variety of the activities depend on the needs of the organization served. Secretaries perform numerous tasks which are dissimilar in kind, but which have in common the purpose of assisting the work of one or more persons in an organization. Because all of the individual tasks performed by secretaries are related to the work of the people they assist, there are unique opportunities available for secretaries to increase the scope of their position.
That is, by using information and insight obtained in performing one task, secretaries can enlarge scope and effectiveness of their performance of others. There is also a special opportunity for secretaries and the people they support to build a mutual working relationship which results in a secretary's acting and speaking for these individuals with an authority not common in other clerical positions.
The duties of a secretary are in some respects similar to those found in many of the specialized clerical series.
Nevertheless, the value of these duties frequently cannot be evaluated by reference to the standards for the individual clerical series because the tasks, as performed by the secretary, are part of a broader and more inclusive responsibility which requires that the secretary be aware of virtually everything happening in the entire organization.
The typical secretarial position requires a general knowledge of substantive work of the organization under the jurisdiction of the persons assisted and, as the secretary's participation in the management of the organization increases and as the nature and extent of that management effort increases through differences in the work situation, the amount of knowledge required increases accordingly.
Positions at the lower grades consist primarily of clerical and procedural duties and, as positions increase in grade, administrative support functions are more predominant.
At the higher levels, the secretary applies a very considerable knowledge of the organization, its objectives, and lines of communication. Closed Microphone Reporting GS This series includes all classes of positions the principal duties of which are to supervise or perform the work involved in the recording and transcription of material spoken at conferences, hearings, or similar proceedings when the recording duties require the ability to operate closed microphone or similar mechanical equipment to reproduce the spoken material on a disk, cylinder, or similar device.
The federal government employs 79 Closed Microphone Reporters. All work are civilians working for the Department of the Army and Air Force. Closed microphone reporting work involves the use of a closed microphone to make verbatim recordings of material spoken at conferences or similar proceedings and the transcription of the material recorded in this manner.
The principal difference between closed microphone and shorthand reporting work is in the different techniques used to record the spoken word.
The shorthand reporter uses manually or machine written symbols, requiring a high degree of skill and knowledge in their use. The closed microphone reporter uses the closed microphone device which requires the ability to repeat spoken material simultaneously with and at the rate equal to that used by the speaker.
This element constitutes a specialized qualification requirement and a basis for series differentiation. The performance of closed microphone reporting working also involves vocabulary knowledge, ability to maintain sustained concentration, responsibility for the accuracy of the final transcript, and other knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities which are sufficiently equivalent in all significant respects to those required in shorthand reporting work that variations in the difficulty of closed microphone reporting work are measurable in terms of the same classification factors as those which provide the bases for grade-level differentiation in shorthand reporter positions.This paper extends international business theory by providing insights into contextual boundaries of the dominant strategic adaptation model, based on assumptions of low power distance and a bottom-up management style.
The History of Scientific Management Theories - In the history of management thinking, there are many ways to manage an organization, such as scientific management and administrative management.
Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, and other office support services. The Best Theory of Industrial Relations There are many different approaches and theories regarding industrial relations nowadays.
In order to mount an opinion on which is the ‘best’ or most appropriate theory of industrial relations, each theory will have to be analyzed. Page updated 4/4/ This group includes all classes of positions the duties of which are to administer, supervise, or perform work involved in management analysis; stenography, typing, correspondence, and secretarial work; mail and file work; the operation of office appliances; the operation of communications equipment, use of codes and ciphers, and procurement of the most efficient.
A. Introduction. Contents Index End. In their discourses on government, Plato and Aristotle discussed all those problems which were important to an Attic citizen if he were to understand and order his vetconnexx.com encyclopædic approach was also used in theories of government that were developed in the Middle Ages (Rehm L/).